In chemical terms, it is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom (an isolated molecule). Each time an electron is successively eliminated, this type of energy is generated, however, the ionization energy associated with the elimination of the first electron is the most used. The electric charge of the nucleus as well as the size of the atom and its electronic configuration will make up the different factors on which the magnitude of this type of energy will depend.
What is ionic energy for?
Ionic energy is used primarily in the field of chemistry or physics. In this sense, its main uses are:
- Detection of any type of threat that has to do with explosives and drugs.
- This helps the proper functioning of fluorescent tubes.
- It intervenes in the lighting of plasma televisions.
- Control the force or energy released by lightning during a storm.
- Participate in the sterilization process of an instrument.
- It contributes to the analysis of proteins, peptides and oligonucleotides.
- Participate in drug discovery and combinatorial chemistry.
- Control drug metabolism.
How can ionic energy be used in the production of electricity?
One of the most striking uses of ionic energy is the possibility of generating electricity. Let’s see how this process works, which could revolutionize the electricity market in Spain. During the 21 editions of the GENERA Fair, an electrical energy generation system was presented that works by means of salt water and an electrochemical process caused by the electrons of a metal. The IFEMA module, which bases its process on ionic energy, can generate up to 50kW / h. This means that electricity can be generated to light a hotel with about 200 rooms. In this sense, with 20 ionic modules, we can generate a sustained power of 1,000 kilowatts and 10 gigawatts of positive life ”, explained Alberto A. Santana, CEO and creator of the ionic module.
The ionization potential (PI) is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from an atom or molecule at a specific distance such that there is no electrostatic interaction between the ion and the electron.2 It was initially defined as the minimum potential for an electron come out of an atom that remains ionized. The ionization potential was measured in volts. Currently, however, it is measured in electron volts (although it is not an SI unit), although it is accepted or in joules per mole. The synonym for ionization energy (EI) is used frequently. The energy to separate the weakest electron connected to the atom is the first ionization potential; however, there is some ambiguity in the terminology. Thus, in chemistry, the second ionization potential of lithium is the energy of the process.
In physics, the second ionization potential is the energy required to separate an electron from the next level to the highest energy level of the neutral atom or molecule, e.g.
It can be studied as pi = q / r, where “q” is the charge of the element
Advantages of ionic energy
Although the uses of ionic energy are only being discovered, experts have already identified two great advantages for this new source of power generation.
- It would be clean energy.
- It does not require the expense of any type of fuel.
How does ionic energy work?
Ionization, along with atomic and ionic radius, electronegativity, electron affinity, and metallicity, follow a trend on the periodic table of elements.
Ionization energy generally increases the motion from left to right over a period of one element (line). This is because the atomic radius generally slows down the motion over a period, so that there is a greater effective attraction between the negatively charged electrons and the positively charged nucleus. Ionization is at its minimum value for the alkali metal on the left side of the table and a maximum for the noble gas on the far right of a period. The noble gas has a filled valence shell, so it resists the extraction of electrons.
Ionization slows the top-down motion of a group of elements (column). This occurs because the principal quantum number of the outermost electron increases as a group advances. There are more protons in the atoms moving down in a group (higher positive charge), however the effect is to pull the electron sheaths, making them smaller and selecting the outer electrons from the attractive force of the nucleus. More shells of electrons are added, moving down in a group, so that the outermost electron moves further and further away from the nucleus.
Key points of ionic energy
- Ionization energy is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion in the gas phase.
- The most common units of ionization energy are kilojoules per mole (kJ / M) or electron volts (eV).
- Ionization energy shows periodicity on the periodic table.
- The general trend is for ionization energy to increase left-to-right motion over a period of elements. As you move from left to right over a period of time, the atomic radius decreases, so the electrons are more attracted to the (closer) nucleus.
- The general trend is that ionization energy slows down the top-down motion in a group of periodic tables. When downloading a group, a shell valence is added. The outermost electrons are farther from the positively charged nucleus, making it easier to remove them.
Examples of ionization
- Calcium nitride (Ca3N2)
- Electron ionization.
- Electron ionization.
- Titanium Sulfide (Ti2S3)
- Water decoupling.
- Indian selenide (In2Se3)
Disadvantages of ionic energy
As for the disadvantages, there is a lot to introduce or understand to begin to see them, since ionization energy is still an undiscovered type of energy in terms of real uses and more specific functions. The absence of a stable energy in relation to this energy does not make it totally reliable either, so we cannot stay with the idea that, in the long term, it will be applied in everyday uses. Also, apparently, it would be expensive energy to generate.