We explain the examples of electric charge in detail with definition, types, characteristics and properties, conservation of electric charge and electric forces…example of electric charge
Electric charge example of electric charge
The electric charge is a force due to each particle comprising atoms: protons and electrons . Protons carry a positive charge and electrons a negative charge.
This force, the charge, is naturally exerted by each of these particles, and when they are in equal amounts, the charges offset each other to form a neutral or uncharged atom.
It is possible to perform a number of experiments to demonstrate the existence of electric charges. For example, if we rub a comb against the hair , it will be observed that it will attract pieces of paper. Often the attractive force is strong enough to keep the pieces of paper suspended. The same effect occurs when rubbing other materials such as glass or rubber .
Another simple experiment is to rub an inflated balloon against a woolen cloth. The balloon can stick to a wall or ceiling in a room for several hours. When materials behave in this way they are said to be electrified or to have become electrically charged .
We can easily electrify our bodies by vigorously rubbing our shoes against a wool rug. The burden on one’s body can be removed by touching someone else. On certain occasions, a visible spark can be observed when one person touches another, and a small touch felt. example of electric charge
Experiments like this are best done on a dry day, as excessive moisture can cause charge to leak from the electrified body to the ground , through various trajectories.
Types of Electric Charge
In a series of simple experiments, it is found that there are two types of electric charges , which Benjamin Franklin named positive and negative. example of electric charge
To demonstrate this fact, it is considered that a hard rubber bar is rubbed against a skin and then suspended from a non-metallic wire. When a glass rod rubbed with a silk cloth approaches the rubber rod , it will be attracted to the glass rod . example of electric charge
On the other hand, if two charged rubber bars (or two charged glass bars, in short, two equal ones) approach each other, the force between them will be repulsive.
Rubber and glass are in two different states of electrification. As a conclusion: Like charges repel and opposite charges attract .
Using the convention, suggested by Franklin, the electric charge on the glass rod is called Positive and the charge on the rubber rod is called Negative .
Any charged body that is attracted to a charged rubber bar must have a positive charge. Conversely, any charged body that is repelled by a charged rubber bar must have a negative charge. It is the opposite with the glass bar.
Characteristics and properties of electric charge example of electric charge
Electric charge has these general properties:
There are two classes of charges in nature, with the property that different charges attract and like charges repel.
The force between charges varies in the inverse of the square of the distance that separates them (Coulomb’s Law).
The charge is conserved.
The charge is quantized.
Conservation of electric charge
Another important aspect of Franklin’s model of electricity is the implication that electric charge is always conserved . That is, when one body rubs against another, no charge is created in the process.
The state of electrification is due to the transfer of charge from one body to another . Therefore, one body gains a certain amount of negative charge while the other gains the same amount of positive charge.
For example, when a glass rod is rubbed with silk, the silk obtains a negative charge that is equal in magnitude to the positive charge on the glass rod.
It is the negatively charged electrons that are transferred from the glass to the silk in the rubbing process. Similarly, when rubber is rubbed against the skin, electrons are transferred from the skin to the rubber, giving the rubber a net negative charge and the rubber a positive charge.
This is consistent with the fact that uncharged neutral matter contains as many positive charges (protons in the nucleus) as negative charges (electrons).
In 1909, Robert Millikan showed that electric charge always occurs as some integer multiple of some fundamental unit of charge “e”. It is said that the charge “q” is quantized . That is, the electrical charge exists as discrete packages.
Therefore, it can be said that:
q = N * e
where “N” is some integer.
The electron has a charge of “-e” and the proton has an equal and opposite charge of “+ e”. Some elementary particles like the Neutron have no charge. A neutral atom must have the same number of protons and electrons.
Charles Coulomb example of electric charge
Charles Coulomb was a French physicist for whom the unit of electric charge was named Coulomb (C) . His greatest contribution to science was in the field of Electrostatics and magnetism , in which he made use of the torsion balance that he himself designed. Among other contributions, there is an article that, in addition to describing the torsion balance, details a design for a compass using the same torsion principle in a suspension.
The electrical forces between the charged objects were measured by Coulomb using the torsion balance , designed by him. By means of this apparatus, Coulomb confirmed that the electric force between two small charged spheres is proportional to the inverse of the square of the distance that separates them, that is:
F α 1 / r 2
The principle of operation of the torsion balance is the same as that of the apparatus used by Cavendish to measure the constant of gravitation, replacing masses with charged spheres. The electrical force between the charged spheres produces a torsion in the suspension fiber.
Another article provided a proof of the inverse square law for the electrostatic force between charges . This Law later bore his name: Coulomb’s Law.
Examples of Electrical Charge
The electric charge of the electron is -1.6021 * 10- 19 Coulomb.
The electric charge of the proton is + 1.6021 * 10- 19 Coulomb.
If we rub a comb against the hair, it will be observed that it will attract pieces of paper.
Rub an inflated balloon against a woolen cloth. The balloon can stick to a wall or ceiling in a room for several hours.
Easily electrify your body by vigorously rubbing your shoes against a wool rug.
An excessive amount of moisture can cause charge to leak from the electrified body to the ground.
Any charged body that is attracted to a charged rubber bar must have a positive charge.
Any charged body that is repelled by a charged rubber bar must have a negative charge.
When one body rubs against another, no charge is created in the process.
The negatively charged electrons are transferred from the glass to the silk in the rubbing process.