Types of Capacitors
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What are capacitors?
A capacitor is considered to be any device whose main utility is to store energy used both for electronics and for other types of elements related to electricity.
This type of tool has certain characteristics such as: capacity, tolerance, polarity, and working voltage . As for its physical conformation, it is given by two plates separated by an interior space where, generally, a dielectric material is located . Dielectric material is known as that which can be used as an insulator , since it is not capable of conducting electricity correctly.It is important to clarify that although all dielectric materials are insulators, not all elements used as insulators of electricity are dielectric.
Types of capacitors
Next we will describe the most important types of capacitors that exist in the market.
- Variable: are those that allow changing its capacity in two possible ways : mechanically or electronically. Within these two main types can be identified. First of all, the so-called trimmers whose capacity value can be selected from among several. On the other hand, the second type is called a sync capacitor ; and these are those whose capacity fluctuates within pre-established limits.
- Electrolytic: in this case the difference is to begin with the physical conformation, since one of its plates is formed by ionic liquid , in turn conductive, as a variable of one of its sheets. They are mainly used in low frequency and high current devices. However, they are not recommended for those who must provide a direct current. On the other hand, its greater capacity and its inevitable polarity can be highlighted. Within this, two main types can be observed that differ according to the oxidizable base used. In this way we will be able to identify those of aluminum oxideand those of tantalum oxide .
- Ceramic: in these also the variation will be in the material that works as a dielectric, in this case it is a ceramic that will be coated in metal sheets . Their main advantage is the large capacity they contain, given that the constant of the ceramic is really high. These in turn can be divided into two types , the so – called disk and those known as tube . The former are characterized by being more common, and in most cases carry their data printed in colored bands. On the other hand, the seconds are no longer practically used since their capacity varies with the changes in temperature that it undergoes.
- Paper : much simpler, and without sub divisions, these are those in which the only variable is that of the material used as the dielectric . In this case, as its name indicates, it is paper that is normally covered by mineral wax or synthetic oil, although sometimes it can also be mineral oil. A possible alternative in this case would be the use of metallized paper, that is to say, that the substance that covers the paper is metal deposited by evaporation.
- Plastic: in this case also the difference will be given because the material that will be used as a dielectric is a thin plastic layer . The variety of identifiable subtypes in this die will be as wide as the number of plastics that possess electrically conductive properties. Possibilities include the use of polypropylene, polycarbonate, polystyrene, polyester, Teflon, polyparaxylene, etc.
Class 1 ceramic capacitors offer the highest stability and lowest losses. They have high tolerance and accuracy and are more stable with changes in voltage and temperature. Class 1 capacitors are suitable for use as oscillators, filters, and demanding audio applications.
capacitor, device for storing electrical energy, consisting of two conductors in close proximity and insulated from each other. A simple example of such a storage device is the parallel-plate capacitor.
A capacitor works on the principle that the capacitance of a conductor increases appreciably when an earthed conductor is brought near it. Hence, a capacitor has two plates separated by a distance having equal and opposite charges.
Generally the first two digits indicate the capacitors value and the third digit indicates the number of zero’s to be added. For example, a ceramic disc capacitor with the markings 103 would indicate 10 and 3 zero’s in pico-farads which is equivalent to 10,000 pF or 10nF.
There are two major types of capacitors: Fixed Capacitors and Variable Capacitors. These two contain different types of capacitors including non-polarized and polarized for the fixed group and tuning and trimming for the variable group.
Reference: Types Of Capacitor In Wikipedia
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