Magnetic energy


Magnetism or magnetic energy is a natural phenomenon by which some objects produce attractive or repulsive forces on other materials.

There are some known materials that have easily detectable magnetic properties, such as nickel, iron, cobalt, and their alloys, commonly called magnets. However, all materials are influenced, to a greater or lesser extent, by the presence of a magnetic field.

Magnetism occurs particularly in electromagnetization cables. Magnetic lines of a bar magnet, produced by iron shavings on paper. Magnetism also has other manifestations in physics, particularly as one of the two components of electromagnetic radiation, such as light.

History of magnetic energy

Magnetic phenomena were known in ancient Greece. They say that for the first time they were observed in the city of Magnesia del Mendro in Asia Minor, hence the term magnetism. They knew that certain stones attracted iron and that pieces of iron attracted others. These were called natural magnets.

The first philosopher to study the phenomenon of magnetism was Thales of Miletus, a Greek philosopher who lived between 625 BC and 545 BC In China, the first reference to this phenomenon is found in a 4th century BC manuscript titled Book of devil’s valley teacher: “Magnetite attracts iron to itself or is attracted to it.” The first mention refers to the attraction of a needle that appears in a work done between 20 and 100 years of our era: “The magnetite attracts the needle.

Scientist Shen Kua (1031-1095) wrote about the magnetic compass needle and improved the precision of navigation using the astronomical concept of absolute north. By the 12th century, the Chinese had already developed enough technique to use the compass to improve navigation. Alexander Neckam was the first European to develop this technique in 1187.

Peter Peregrinus de Maricourt, was a 13th century French scholar who conducted experiments on magnetism and wrote the first extant treatise on the properties of magnets. His work is highlighted by the first detailed discussion of a compass. The Spanish cosmographer Martín Cortés de Albacar trained in Zaragoza and the Cadiz school of pilots discovered and placed the magnetic pole in Greenland in 1551 for Spanish and English sailors (his book was translated and widely reproduced in England), considerably facilitating navigation. Galileo Galilei and his friend Francesco Sagredo took an interest in magnetism, setting a good piece of magnetic rock weighing more than a kilo and a half in a beautiful wooden contraption; the magnetite was arranged in such a way that, like a magnet, it attracted an iron ball weighing almost four kilos; but the lack of practical and economic applications of the invention discouraged further experiments by these important Italian scientists. In 1600, the physician and physicist William Gilbert published in London his work De magnete, magnisque corporibus, e de magno magnete tellure; Phusiologia Noua, plurimis & argumentis, & Experimentis demonstrata (“On the magnet and magnetic bodies and on the Great Magnet of the Earth”), which laid the foundations for the in-depth study of magnetism by recording the characteristics and types of magnets and perform all kinds of carefully described experiments. He observed that the maximum attraction exerted by the magnets on the pieces of iron always occurred in the areas called “poles” of the magnet. He classified materials into conductors and insulators and created the first electroscope. He discovered influence magnetization and was the first to realize that the magnetization of iron is lost when it is heated to red. He studied the inclination of a magnetic needle and concluded that the Earth behaves like a large magnet.

Knowledge of magnetism remained limited to magnets until, in 1820, Hans Christian Orsted, a professor at the University of Copenhagen, discovered that a common thread in which a current circulated exerted a magnetic disturbance around it, which could move a needle. located in that environment. Many other experiments followed André-Marie Ampere, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Michael Faraday, and others who found connections between magnetism and electricity. James Clerk Maxwell synthesized and explained these observations in his Maxwell equations. Unified magnetism and electricity in a single field, electromagnetism. In 1905, Einstein used these laws to test his theory of special relativity, in the process he showed that electricity and magnetism were fundamentally linked.

Coulomb’s Laws

The formula to calculate the magnetic energy is applicable through Coulomb’s law

f = k MMMM

Where f = magnetic force; k = constant coulomb;

M and M = magnetic masses located in this space or magnetic field.

The earth’s magnetic energy and that of natural or artificial magnets are manifested with maximum intensity concentrated in two specific points of the Earth and of the magnets, called magnetic poles, which are distinguished by the nicknames of North Pole and South Pole. The force of attraction observed between the poles of the opposite name of two magnets or the repulsion between the poles of the same name is the most obvious manifestation of magnetic energy.

There may be an example or manifestation of a magnet with an object that attracts it, such as a nail or other material that attracts it as a force of gravity.

Magnetic energy basics

Magnetic forces

The magnetic force is the part of the total electromagnetic force or Lorentz force that an observer measures over a distribution of charges in motion. Magnetic forces are produced by the movement of charged particles, such as electrons, indicating the close relationship between electricity and magnetism.

The magnetic force between magnets and / or electromagnets is a residual effect of the magnetic force between moving charges. This is because within conventional magnets there are microcurrents that macroscopically give rise to closed magnetic field lines that exit the material and re-enter it. The entry points form one pole and the exit points the other pole.


The phenomenon of magnetism has been known for thousands of years. The oldest known manifestations are those that correspond, first of all, to magnets, which are naturally found in the form of some mineral deposits, such as magnetite.

Later, the Chinese probably discovered terrestrial magnetism, producing as a technological result the invention of the compass and its subsequent application to maritime navigation. The systematic study of magnetic phenomena began a few centuries ago and Gauss was one of the researchers who made important contributions. In the last century, Oersted (around 1820) discovered that electric currents give rise to magnetic effects, in particular, the electric current that flows in a conductor produces an effect totally equivalent to that produced by a magnet, being able to attract iron objects , deflate a compass, etc …

How is magnetic energy produced?

As a consequence of the electric currents produced underground as a consequence of the different activity of solar heat on the Earth’s surface. It is produced as a consequence of the electric currents produced underground as a consequence of the different activity of solar heat on the earth’s surface.

In electronics, magnetic energy is an important part of the operation of transformers and inductors. In transformers, magnetic energy is the channel through which electrical energy is transferred from the primary to the secondary winding, even if there is no direct electrical connection. In inductors, magnetic energy is temporarily stored in the inductor’s magnetic field, to be distributed later (where the “back time” can be only nanoseconds later).

Magnetic energy is also part of the operation of electric motors, solenoid actuators, some types of circuit breakers, etc.

Examples of magnetic energy

  1. The north pole with respect to the compass.
  2. The magnet is attracted to the iron.
  3. The Bermuda Triangle drives the compass crazy and causes interference with most radios and electronic devices.
  4. The bullet train of Japan, the same load always repels and this principle is used to avoid friction, basically floating and reaching enormous speed.

Magnetic power generator

The magnetic energy generator is a device from which, from the repulsion of images, renewable electrical energy is generated. The main objective of this device is to become independent from the consumption of electrical energy from polluting sources, or rather, from those that do not have such a constant performance throughout the year.

The main condition is to use reused materials, so that the cost of their creation is very low and thus more protect the environment. (Reuse is the second step towards reducing waste)

Types of magnetic materials

There are several types of behavior of magnetic materials, the main ones being ferromagnetism, diamagnetism and paramagnetism.

Diamagnetic materials:

In diamagnetic materials, the arrangement of the electrons of each atom is such that there is a global cancellation of the magnetic effects. However, if the material is introduced into an induced field, the substance acquires a weak magnetization and in the opposite direction to the inducing field. If a rod of diamagnetic material is placed within a strong, uniform magnetic field, it is placed through it.

Paramagnetic materials:

Paramagnetic materials do not exhibit global cancellation of magnetic effects, so each constituent atom acts like a small magnet. However, the orientation of these magnets is generally arbitrary and the overall effect is canceled. Similarly, if the paramagnetic material is subject to the action of an inductive magnetic field, the magnetic field induced in that substance is oriented in the direction of the magnetic field inductor. This causes a rod of paramagnetic material to be freely suspended in an inductive field to align it.

Ferromagnetic materials:


An electromagnet is a magnet made of electrical wire wrapped in a magnetic material such as iron. This type of magnet is useful in cases where a magnet needs to be on or off, for example large and heavy cranes to lift scrap from the cart.

In the case of electric currents moving through a wire, the resulting field is directed according to the right hand rule. If the right hand is used as a model, and the right hand thumb along the positive wire to the negative side (“conventional current” in the reverse direction of the actual direction of electron motion), then the magnetic field recapitulates all the wire in the direction indicated by the fingers of the right hand. As shown geometrically in the case a loop or helix wire is formed in such a way that the current moves in a circle, then all the field lines in the center of the coil are directed in the same direction, which launches a magnetic dipole whose strength depends on the current in the entire loop, or the current in the helix multiplied by the number of turns of the wire. In the case of this loop, if the fingers of the right hand are directed in the direction of conventional current flow (that is, positive and negative, the direction opposite to the actual electron flow), the thumb will point in the direction corresponding to the north pole of the dipole.

Temporary and permanent magnets:

A permanent magnet maintains its magnetism without an external magnetic field, whereas a temporary magnet is only magnetic as long as it is located in another magnetic field. Inducing the magnetism of the steel results in an iron magnet losing its magnetism when the field induction is removed. A temporary magnet, such as iron, is a suitable material for electromagnets. Magnets are made by stroking with another magnet, the recording, while connected to an opposing magnetic field within a solenoid coil, is supplied with a direct current. A permanent magnet can lose its magnetism when subjected to heat, strong shocks, or when placed inside a solenoid provided with an alternating current reduction.

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