Examples of Liquids
We explain that what are some examples of Liquids? A Liquid is any substance that has its particles closer together than those of a gas but more disordered than those of a solid . It is about the intermediate physical state of matter.
All substances can, at least in theory, manifest themselves in a liquid state, although only some are found in this way under normal conditions of temperature (T = 25 ° C) and pressure (P = 1 atm).
Properties of a Liquid
- Volume: A liquid occupies the volume defined by the container that contains it, and takes exactly the shape of it.
- Density: Density is the mass contained in each unit of volume. The mass of a liquid is more concentrated than that of a gas, so its density will be higher. The mass of a liquid is freer than that of a solid, so its density will be less than that of the solid. In conclusion, the densities of liquids are intermediate values between those of gases and those of liquids.
- Freezing Point: The Freezing point is the temperature at which the particles of the liquid have lost so much kinetic energy that they have arranged themselves, until they form a solid. In the case of Water, the freezing point is at 0 ° C, provided 1 atm.
- Boiling Point: The Boiling Point is the temperature at which the particles of the liquid have acquired so much kinetic energy that they have been agitated, until they form a vapor or gas. In the case of Water, the boiling point is at 100 ° C, in a condition of 1 atm.
- Viscosity: Viscosity is the property of substances that indicates their resistance to flow. It is the result of the cohesion forces that exist between the molecules of the substance. In the case of liquids, the viscosity can have a wide range of values. It is measured in poise units, whose submultiple the centiPoise is the most used to express it.
- Hydrostatic Pressure: The hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by the liquid contained in a container, and depends on its density, the acceleration of gravity and the height that the liquid covers in the container. It is independent of the area it covers, and the shape of the container.
- Surface Tension: Surface tension is the support exerted by the surface particles of the liquid against the light solid bodies that rest on it. It is the result of the cohesion forces accumulated in the deeper particles, which are projected in the higher ones.
- Capillarity: It is the property of liquids that allows them to ascend through thin tubes to a pressure equilibrium. It also determines its ability to get into sponges and absorbent materials.
- Volatility: Volatility is the property of liquids that indicates that they have a Boiling Point lower than that of Water (<100 ° C). Alcohols are the most representative examples of these liquids.
Examples of Liquids
- Mercury (Hg)
- Ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH)
- Water (H 2 O)
- Acetic Acid (CH 3 COOH)
- Hexane (C 6 H 14 )
- Honey bee
- Automotive lubricant
- Fuel oil
- Muriatic acid
- Chinese ink
Substances that exist as liquids
The substances that are found as liquids under normal conditions of Pressure (1 atm) and Temperature (25 ° C) are of a very varied nature:
Mercury (Hg): It is the only metal found in liquid form. It is one of the densest materials, with a density of 13.6 g / cm 3 . Its cohesion forces are extraordinarily great, if you try to separate it with a bar, it becomes a single mass, leaving no residue around it.
Ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH): Ethyl alcohol, also called Ethanol or MethylCarbinol, is the second simplest alcohol, and has a boiling point of 78.5 ° C, which is why it is considered a highly volatile liquid.
Water (H 2 O): Water, named as The Universal Solvent, is the most abundant liquid compound on the planet, covering it in the oceans. It is capable of integrating solid salts and many organic liquid substances into it.
Acetic Acid (CH 3 COOH): Acetic acid, contained in a large proportion in vinegar, is an organic liquid very useful for preserving food, such as canned chili peppers. It is also used as a chemical reagent in many industrial operations.
Hexane (C 6 H 14 ): Hexane is a powerful solvent for extracting oils from oilseeds. It is the sixth compound in the series of alkanes, and is in a liquid state.
Other substances that are in liquid state are honey, oil, automotive lubricants, milk, gasoline, fuel oil, muriatic acid, India ink.