Examples

# Examples Of Flow Energy

We explain that what are the examples of flow energy? The energy flow is containing a liquid or gaseous substance when moving from point A to point B through a closed pipe or an open channel. This type of energy is determined by the properties of the fluid, such as:

• Density
• Viscosity
• Temperature
• Velocity
• Kinetic energy
• Potential energy

It can also be influenced by external factors such as:

• Pipe material
• Friction between the fluid and this material
• Valve opening or closing
• Pressure injection
• Heating
• Cooling

## Hydrodynamics and flow energy

Hydrodynamics or fluid dynamics is the branch of dynamics that studies fluids in motion . To understand all aspects of this study, numerous concepts have been established:

• Ideal fluid: it is an incompressible fluid, that is, whose volume cannot be reduced by pressure, like liquids. It has no internal friction or viscosity.
• The incompressibility hypothesis is usually a good approximation for liquids.
• A gas can be treated as an ideal fluid, as long as the flow is such that the pressure differences are not too great.
• Flow line: it is the path that an element of a fluid in motion follows.
• The velocity of the fluid is variable in magnitude and direction.
• Stationary flow: it is when all part of the fluid that passes through a given point follows the same flow line as the previous parts. The velocity at each point does not vary with time.
• Turbulent flow: it is when the fluid goes at such speed and pressure that all its particles are agitated, colliding against each other and with variable directions.

## Bernoulli’s equation

Bernoulli’s equation is a mathematical expression based on the law of conservation of energy , which describes how energy behaves while a fluid goes from point A to point B. A fluid is considered to circulate stationary through a pipe which is not horizontal. The pressure will vary from point to point along the pipe and some work must be done to get the fluid to circulate. The fluid velocity and pressure will also vary.

P + ρgy + ½ ρv 2 = constant

This equation is for a non-viscous, stationary flow of an incompressible fluid

Bernoulli’s equation expresses the equality of work per unit volume of fluid to the sum of the quantities kinetic energy and potential energy per unit volume that take place in the flow. This equation can also be interpreted as a function of pressures. P is always the absolute pressure: atmospheric pressure + gauge pressure.

## Examples of flow energy

1. When natural gas circulates through the domestic pipe to be used in the stove, it goes with little flow energy, until it gradually reaches the burners of the stove.
2. When the water vapor circulates out of a boiler, it goes with a very high flow energy, until it reaches the heating component of an evaporator or still.
3. Compressed air has a high flow energy, which is used according to the purpose for which it is intended, such as drying a car.
4. The flow energy of the water in a river will be variable according to the change in height from a starting point to an end point.
5. In a brewing plant, the flow energy of the finished product is going to be high in the discharge for filling bottles.
6. In a landfill of a water treatment plant, the water has a variable flow energy as it changes direction until it reaches the end point.
7. In the supply pipes of a swimming pool, the flow energy is sufficient to overcome the pressure of the contained water.
8. In oil extraction plants, the product obtained circulates slowly by gravity, until it is collected in equipment in which the solvent will evaporate to be used again.
9. In plants that produce salts such as sodium sulfate, brine is extracted from the subsoil. This carries enough flow energy to reach the surface, and is supplied by pumps.
10. In a domestic shower, the maximum flow energy will depend on whether the water comes directly from a pumping system or from a tank on the roof, driven by gravity.