Branches of Biology from A to Z

The branches of biology are numerous and cover different areas within the generality of this science. The branches of biology are the different specializations of the more general science that is biology . In addition, biology relies on other sciences such as chemistry, geology, physics …

The biology is the science of life , namely living beings as “studying living things’ is a very broad field: some examples that expand after are nutrition, morphology, development or evolution reproduction of life with one of the great scientists in history Charles Darwin.

Knowing the branches of the so-called biological sciences is of great interest when it comes to researching or in a more practical way to be able to choose the field of study in which we want to specialize , and thus be able to choose a university that adjusts to professional development in biology What are we looking for. There are specialized universities in the different branches to study and specialize in them. Others can be accessed through doctoral studies.

The traditional and the most current specialties or branches of biology are broken down below, as each day they advance more in a multitude of very varied disciplines. choosing between them is sometimes difficult. (Other times it is difficult to find a biology university that has the specialty we are looking for).

 Main branches of biology

  • Cell biology or cytology : branch of biology specialized in the study of the structure and function of cells beyond what molecular biology studies.
  • Developmental biology : it is the branch that studies how is the development of living beings from the moment they are conceived until they are born.
  • Marine biology : it is the discipline of biology that studies biological phenomena in the marine environment-
  • Molecular biology ; studies biological processes at the molecular level or also the study of the structure, function and composition of biologically important molecules within their function in living beings. For example, it studies protein synthesis, DNA replication, and aspects of metabolism.
  • Botany : Science or branch of biology that studies plants, especially at the taxonomic level.
  • Ecology : branch of biology that studies the relationship of living things and their habitat .
  • Physiology : studies the functions of living beings such as respiratory functions, blood circulation, nervous system … Also within plants, how the sap circulates, how they reproduce, how they relate to the environment … in this case, biology has been branched into plant physiology and animal physiology.
  • Genetics : science that studies genes, their inheritance, repair, expression …
  • Microbiology : Science or branch of biology that studies microorganisms.
  • Zoology : A discipline derived from biology that studies animal life.
Auxiliary Sciences of Biology

Among the auxiliary sciences that collaborate with biology are many other basic sciences such as:

  • Physics : the dynamics of fluids such as blood, the transmission of the nerve impulse, are some of the examples in which physics acts as an auxiliary science of biology.
  • Mathematics : the mathematical modeling of the population dynamics of ecosystems is one of the aspects in which mathematics is auxiliary to biology, but not the only one, it also serves as support for epidemiology, and for everything in general.
  • Chemistry : chemistry and biology come together in biochemistry but chemical reactions both inside living beings and outside condition: the redox potential, saline concentrations … they are basic chemistry that is necessary to study life.
  • Geology : geology: soil characteristics, mountain height, sedimentation dynamics and transport as occurs in dunes… these are some of the aspects where geology is an essential branch for biology.
  • Meteorology and climatology : temperature and precipitation are two of the most important limiting factors for the development of living beings and ecosystems, meteorology is responsible for the specific evolution of atmospheric weather while climatology studies the distribution of these patterns and helps to configure the characteristics of the main biomes and species.

Branches of biology from A to Z

There are numerous branches of biology that in turn can be divided into other very specialized branches in very specific groups or aspects.


Within the branches of biology, one of them is aerobiology. It deals with studying the distribution and levels of pollen and fungi in order to study and prevent allergies but also other small particles and microorganisms such as bacteria and tiny insects. It is also responsible for studying how diseases are transmitted through the air since many viruses, bacteria and fungi do so.


Anatomy is responsible for studying how living beings and their organs are internally structured: the composition, location and how they are related to each other is also the object of study. Comparative anatomy is that part that compares similar organs of different animals to study their evolutionary origin if they are analogous or homologous organs .


Within the branches of zoology, which is one of the branches of biological sciences par excellence, it is in charge of the study of arachnids: their description, biology, ecology….


It is the branch of biology that together with astronomy studies whether life exists outside of planet Earth, and the origin, evolution and distribution of possible extraterrestrial life. It is currently focused on detecting those planets that can potentially host life or have had it in the past.


It is the branch of biology that is specialized in the study of prokaryotes: their morphology, ecology, distribution, ethology, biochemistry and genetics. Although the word speaks of bacteria, it also deals with the study of archaea.


It is the branch of biology that studies the physical processes that underlie biological processes, that is, it studies the biology of living beings and the cell with physical criteria. As a result of this, processes such as the nervous impulse are very well understood and it represents a great advance for other sciences such as neuroscience.


It is the science that studies the distribution of living beings on earth, and how the current distribution has been reached and how it is being modified. Currently it is very important due to the changes that are beginning to be observed due to global warming. It is both a branch of biology and geography and requires other branches such as botany, zoology, evolutionary biology, also ecology and other sciences such as geology.


It is the branch of biology that is dedicated to the management and analysis of biological data using computational tools. It can also be called as computational biology or biological informatics. It is currently very useful for the prediction of protein structure, evolution modeling or estimates related to protein-protein interactions or on the genome.


It is the science that studies mechanical structures (bones, muscles, blood circulation …) based on physical criteria. It is also part of biophysics.


Bionics is based on solving problems in architecture, engineering, technology … by using biological solutions that living beings have adapted to solve the same problems. It is currently applied to the design of prostheses, to sensory improvements, but also to other types of aspects such as urban planning.


Biochemistry studies the composition and chemical reactions that occur in living beings. Rather than being considered within the branches of biology, it is considered encompassed within chemistry although it would be difficult to determine the results without in-depth knowledge of biological systems.


It is a branch of biology that is fundamentally based on biology and microbiology, although it also uses applications from other branches such as biochemistry or genetics. It uses organisms as technology and with technology for industrial uses such as medical processes, agricultural biotechnology (obtaining transgenics and genetically modified organisms -OMG), industrial biotechnology.

Biological psychiatry

It is a branch of medicine that studies mental disorders from the point of view of their biological function within the framework of the nervous system.


Carcinology is another branch of biology that studies crustaceans, this branch of biology can also be called malacostracology. It should not be confused with the study of cancer.


It is the branch of biology that classifies living things based on their evolutionary relationships based on their derived similarities. In this way, the evolutionary tree of living beings based on common characters can be assembled.


It is the branch of biogeography that studies the distribution of living beings based on chorotypes. Chorotypes are general distribution areas such as, for example, the Mediterranean basin, the Palearctic region, etc.


It is the branch of biology that is responsible for the study of insects. The study of insects is of great interest due to the economic impact that insects can have on human goods, agriculture and the production of other goods such as honey.


This branch can be practiced by biologists but also by doctors, considering itself a branch of medicine mainly.


It is the branch of biology that studies echinoderms, which include sea urchins, crinoids and starfish.


Embryology is the branch of biology that is responsible for studying morphogenesis, embryonic development from fertilization to the birth of living beings.


It is the branch of science that studies how natural resources have been and are used by different human cultures. The study of plants for food, medicinal or ritual purposes is an example of the study of ethnobiology.


Ethology is the branch of biology and psychology that studies the behavior of animals in different conditions, whether in the wild, in their natural environment, in the laboratory, in captive conditions …

Environmental biology

Among the branches of biology, this is the one that studies the interaction of living beings with the environment and humans. It studies the relationship of biological systems with the natural environment so that its knowledge allows to minimize the impact of human activities on the natural environment.

Evolutionary biology

It studies the biological changes of living beings and the common ascendant or descendant of living beings, one of the branches of biology that offers the most unknowns.


Genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the help of enzymes and messenger molecules. As we have seen before, genetics is responsible for the study of individual genes and their role in heredity, which is why it differs from genomics.

Human biology

It is a very interdisciplinary branch of biology that studies human populations based on genetic variability, their biotopes, diseases … in short, it tries to understand how human life develops beyond molecular biology. It also interacts with other sciences such as nutrition, medicine and biological anthropology.


It is the branch of biology, specifically zoology, that studies reptiles and amphibians.


It is the branch of biology that studies the tissues that make up living beings, and which in turn are made up of cells specialized in that type of tissue, for this reason, it is closely related to anatomy, in particular with the microscopic part of This studio.


Within the branches of biological science, this is a specialization of zoology, which as we have seen is a branch of biology, which studies fish,  both bony fish (teleostia), and chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish where the sharks, rays and chimeras), and agnate fish (jawless such as lampreys and hagfish).


It is the branch of biology that studies the immune system: how the immune response is produced, the tissues, cells and organs that intervene in the defense of the animal body against foreign elements.


It is the science that studies processes in lake environments, closely related to biology but also geology. One of the great Spanish ecologists, Ramón Margalef, studied the limnology of different lakes to a great extent as the basis for his ecological theories.


Metabolomics is the science that performs the systematic study of the unique traces left by specific cellular processes in their path, that is, the study of the profile of the metabolites  (small molecules) of a biological sample.


Among the branches of biology and botany, mycology is the science that deals with the study of fungi. This science is of great importance due to the great relationship that fungi have with human beings and its consequences on health and economic criteria.


Among the branches of biology, this is the one that deals with the study of the structure and shape of living beings and their implications in relation to the environment and other species.


Neurobiology is the branch of biology that studies the cells of the nervous system and how they relate to each other.


Oncology is the science that studies everything related to the biology of cancer, how it occurs and the development of treatments for this.


Ontogeny is the science that studies the origin and generation of living beings from their fertilization to senescence (old age).

Organography or plant anatomy

Organography is the science that studies the tissues and cellular structure of plants.


It is the science and branch of zoology that studies birds. Ornithology has many fans due to the ease of seeing birds and their showiness. Birds were key in the development of Darwin’s theory of evolution since they allow more or less simple studies on speciation and evolution, biogeography, etc.


It is the science that is responsible for the connection between past and present forms and the interpretation of plant fossils.


The Paleontology is the discipline that is both branch of biology and geology, dedicated to the study of living fossil, is responsible for identifying and classifying species, studying their biology and evolutionary history. It is a science that has many fans and fans.


Palynology is, among the branches of biology, the one in charge of the study of pollen and spores.


It is the science and branch of biology that studies parasites and parasitism. It has many applications, including that related to medicine and human health.


It is the science that studies diseases and pathogens, derived from medicine, biologists can also dedicate themselves to this study.


Phycology is the branch of biology that studies algae, whether they are freshwater or marine algae.

Phylogeny or phylogenetics

It is the science that deals with the evolutionary history of organisms. Specifically, it is the branch of evolutionary biology that studies phylogenesis, which is the process by which species appear from a stem species through evolutionary bifurcations.


Phytopathology is the branch of biology, more particularly botany, that studies plant diseases, whether caused by viruses, fungi or insects. It also deals with diseases caused by nutritional imbalances in organisms.

Reproductive biology

It is the branch of biology that studies aspects related to human reproduction but also sexual and asexual reproduction of plants and animals. When it comes to fertility studies, in vitro fertilization, or advances in assisted reproduction, it is the subject of reproductive biology.


The sinecología is the branch of biology that studies the relationships between communities and between ecosystems.


It is the science that studies the biological basis of social relations between animals.

Systems biology

It is the branch of biology that is dedicated to representing as mathematical models the relationships and interactions that exist in nature or in biological systems with the aim of understanding these processes. It is closely related to bioinformatics.

Structural biology

It is a branch of molecular biology that studies the structure of macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids … For example, the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA is associated with structural biology, and is one of the most important branches for the research in the development of treatments for diseases such as cancer, HIV, … because the structure of proteins is what determines whether drugs are effective or not.


Taxonomy is the branch of biology that deals with the systematic classification of living things into taxa.

Theology or mammalogy

Mastozoology is the branch of biology (particularly zoology) that deals with the specific study of mammalian animals.


It is the auxiliary science that studies toxins, although its foundations come from chemistry, how toxics behave in the body and what effects they have, it has a lot to do with the knowledge of the biology of the organisms that suffer from said toxin. It is not found within the branches of biology itself, but it is important for global knowledge. Forensic, environmental taxonomy and ecotoxicology belong to this science.


It is the science that is responsible for the study of the set of RNA that exists in a cell, tissue or organ.


It is the science and branch of microbiology (which in turn is a branch of biology) that studies viruses and the particles that resemble them (such as prions), in all their aspects: infection cycle, necessary hosts, culture in in vitro and in vivo, …

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button